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Reference Library
Product Metrics for Software

This page provides access to a variety of downloadable papers that address product metrics for software. The following topics are considered:

Function Points
Goal Question Metric (GQM)
Measurement Guide
Measurement Theory
OO Metrics
Test Metrics
Web Metrics


A Data Model for Object - Oriented Design Metrics [PDF]
Joe Raymond Abounader and David Alex Lamb

This paper discusses the differences between traditional and OO metrics. This paper also presents a list of the most known sets of OO metrics that have been derived so far, and shows some of the various guidelines along which OO metrics are classified.

A Validation of Object - Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators [PDF]
Victor R. Basil, Lionel Briand and Walcélio L. Melo

This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which the authors experimentally investigated the suite of Object- Oriented (OO) design metrics introduced by Chidamber and Kemerer. They assessed these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes. This study is complementary to Li and Henry, where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform their validation accurately, they collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements.

Defining and Validating High-Level Design Metrics [PDF]
Lionel Briand, Sandro Morasca and Victor R. Basili

This paper introduces and compares four strategies for defining high-level design metrics. They are based on different sets of assumptions (about the design process) related to a well defined experimental goal they help reach: identify error-prone software parts. In particular, ratio-scale metrics for cohesion and coupling are defined, that show interesting properties. An in-depth experimental validation, conducted on large scale projects demonstrates the usefulness of the metrics defined.

Chapter 6
Metrics Development for Object - Oriented Software [PDF]

James M. Bieman

This paper discusses the following: differences in software metrics of procedural and object-oriented software, some current work in developing object-oriented metrics, the object-oriented reuse measurement project in Colorado State University, and how measurement is used to quantify desirable and undesirable structural style in object-oriented software.

Towards Maintainability Metrics on Software Architecture: An Adaptation of Object - Oriented Metrics [PDF]
PerOlof Bengtsson

This paper presents a set of software architecture metrics that have been adapted from the object oriented code level to the software architecture level. The metrics suite is analyzed and motivated theoretically. Also the main problem with using a case study for validating the metrics is discussed.

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Function Points

A System for Measuring Function Points from Specifications [PDF]
Fausto Gramantier, Evelina Lamma, Paola Mello and Fabrizio Riguzzi

This paper proposes a knowledge based approach for the automated measurement of the Function Point metric starting from the specifications of a software system expressed in the form of an Entity Relationship (ER) diagram plus a Data Flow Diagram (DFD). This paper considers an integration of the two diagrams, which we call ER-DFD, in which the data stores of DFD are substituted by the entities and relationships of the ER. The authors have specialized the general rules for counting Function Points for the case of a specification in the form of an ER-DFD model.

Dear Dr. Use Case: What About Function Points and Use Cases? [PDF]
Leslee Probasco

This article answers the following question: "If we could estimate the functional complexity of a use case (e.g., hard, medium, or easy), is there a way to then estimate the number of function points those use cases might have?"

FAST Function Points [PDF]
David Seaver

This slide presentation covers the following topics: overview of function points (IFPUG based technique), FAST function points overview, an example of requirements based Function Point Count, and an example of a screen based completed project Function Point Count.

Function Point Measurement Tool for UML Design Specification [PDF] *FEE*
Takuya Uemura, Shinji Kusumoto and Katsuro Inoue

This paper proposes detailed FPA (Function Point Analysis) measurement rules for the design specifications based on the UML(Unified Modeling Language) and develop the function point measurement tool, whose input products are design specifications on Rational Rose. This paper have also applies the tool to the actual design specification and examines the difference between the values by the tool and one by the specialist of FPA. The results show the applicability of the author's tool.

Function Points: Who Needs Them? [PDF]
CHARISMATEK Software Metrics

This article lists a few ways to use function points.

Introduction to Function Points [PDF]
Carlos Colon Riollano

This slide presentation covers the following topics: what a function point is, objectives of function point analysis, and a brief function point history.

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A Comparative Study of Two Techniques for Analyzing Software Measurement Data [PDF]
Sandro Morasca and Günther Ruhe

Different data analysis techniques may provide data analysts with different and complementary insights into the studied phenomena. In this paper, two data analysis techniques - Rough Sets and Logistic Regression - are compared, from both the theoretical and the experimental points of view. The two data analysis techniques are different in nature: Logistic Regression uses a statistical approach, while the Rough Sets analysis technique does not. The authors have applied both techniques to the same data set. The goal of the experimental study was to determine the major factors affecting reliability and reusability in the application context.

A Pastry Cook's View on Software Measurement [PDF]
Frank Niessink and Hans van Vliet

To aid in answering the question of to what extent guidelines increase the chance of a successful measurement program, this paper introduces a generic process model for measurement-based improvement. This model is used as a reference model to compare a number of existing software measurement implementation frameworks.

Code Churn: A Measure for Estimating the Impact of Code Change [PDF]
Sebastian G. Elbaurn and John C. Munson

This study presents a methodology that will produce a viable fault surrogate. The focus of the effort is on the precise measurement of software development process and product outcomes. This paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of code complexity churn by validating it against the testing problem reports.

Establishing Software Measurement Programs [PDF] *FEE*
Raymond J. Offen and Ross Jeffery

This article proposes a framework, or metamodel, called the Model, Measure, Manage Paradigm (M3P). This metamodel is an extension of the Quality Improvement Paradigm/Goal-Question-Metric paradigm and helps to counter the lack of well-defined links between numerical data and the surrounding development and business contexts. This article also presents early experience with the framework gathered form several case studies, discusses the stages of M3P implementation and also the tool set the authors have developed for use with M3P.

History of Software Measurement [PDF]
Horst Zuse

This paper on the history of software measurement covers the following topics: why software management, groundworks of software management, software design measurement, cost estimation measures, goal-question-metric paradigm, user-view and viewpoints, measurement theory and software measures, European projects, software measurement in Germany, research in the area of software metrics in USA, research in the area of software measurement in Japan, validation of software measures and prediction models, software measures in an object-oriented environment, data dependency measurement, entropy measures, software measures for distributed systems, neuronal networks and software measures, national and international conferences in the software measurement area, software measurement tools, software measures and reengineering, ISO 9000-3 and software measurement, cognitive processes and measures, and the future.

Making Software Measurement Really Work: #1 Aligning Measurement Expectations
The First in a Series of Measurement Articles [PDF]

Carol A. Dekkers

This article addresses the mistaken notion of measurement or a particular metric being a silver bullet - a notion that left untapped can impede your organization from ever getting started with measurement.

Measurements Should Generate Value, Rather Than Data [PDF]
Frank Niessink and Hans van Vliet

This paper presents a generic process model for measurement-based improvement. This paper describes a number of common uses for measurement programs in software organizations, from which additional 'external' success factors are derived. In addition, a number of activities that organizations can use to implement value- generating measurement programs are proposed.

Metrics for Small Projects: Experiences at the SED [PDF]
Ross Grable, Jacquelyn Jernigan, Casey Pogue and Dale Divis

This article discusses applying metrics at the Software Engineering Directorate of the Research, Development, and Engineering Center at the US Army Missile Command, which designs, builds, and maintains small embedded applications. The SED analysis, current collection procedures, and future plans are also discussed.

Practical Software Measurement
A Guide to Objective Program Insight Version 2.1 [PDF]

Joint Logistics Commanders

This guide was developed to meet the challenges of program cost, schedule and performance objectives. This guide explains how to select the measures for your program and how to analyze the measurement results to identify and manage your software issues.

Seven Steps to Designing a Software Metric [PDF]
Linda L. Westfall

This paper outlines a practical, step by step process for designing effective software metrics.

Software Metrics [PDF]
Everald E. Mills

This paper begins with software metrics description, philosophy and objectives. A module annotated outline is then presented containing an introduction, product metrics, process metrics, models and empirical validation, implementation of a metrics program, and trends in software metrics. Teaching considerations are also presented.

Software Metrics Best Practices - 2001 [PDF]
Peter Kulik and Catherine Weber

In this paper, KLCI conducted its fourth annual Software Metrics Best Practices study. The results are as follows: profile of metrics "Best Practices", benchmarking of metrics spending, software metrics benefits, software measurements used, and commonly used software metrics tools.

The Importance of IS Metric Evaluation in Industry [HTM]
Mark de Chazal and Tom Jackson

This article discusses IS metrics and gives some tips on IS metric analysis that the authors think are useful for companies to keep in mind.

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Goal Question Metric (GQM)

Goal Driven Measurement
Applying the GQM (Goal/Question/Metric method) [PDF]

Jyrki Kontio

This slide presentation on GQM covers the following topics: the GQM method ( background, definition, GQM in improvement context), and experiences (main difficulties, new insights).

Goal - Driven Software Measurement - A Guidebook [PDF]
Robert E. Park, Wolfhart B. Goethert and William A. Florac

This guidebook can show how to identify and define software measures that will support your own organization's business goals. This process produces measures that will provide insight into the management issues that are most important to your organization.

Goal Question Metric Paradigm
Where to Begin? [PDF]

Linda Shafer

This slide presentation discusses a template and a plan for the creation of a set of organizational metrics based on an organization's goal. This metric plan follows the Goal Question Metric (GQM) Paradigm developed by Professor Victor Basili and also recommendations in the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for level 2 maturity.

GQM Based Metrics for Risk Reduction [PDF]
Engineering - Ingegneria S.p.A.

This paper discusses the successful introduction of a measurement program at Engineering Ingegneria S.p.A. using the Goal-Question-Metric paradigm and completed by refined statistical analysis techniques that has allowed them to identify the main factors affecting effort and productivity.

The Goal Question Metric Approach [PDF]
Victor R. Basili, Gianluigi Caldiera and H. Dieter Rombach

This paper discusses the GQM approach and the measurement model. Also the GQM process is discussed.

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Measurement Guide

Issue - Category - Measure Mapping [PDF]
Author Unknown

This table contains for each common issue area, the measurement category and measures.

Practical Software and Systems Measurement
A Foundation for Objective Project Management
Version 4.0b [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This guide describes how to define and implement a measurement program that will support the information needs of software and system acquirer and supplier organizations. Topics include: the measurement process, tailor measures, measurement selection and specification tables, apply measures, measurement analysis and indicator examples, implement process, evaluate measurement, and measurement case studies.

Part One
The Measurement Process [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains five chapters: managing software and systems projects, measurement process overview, measurement principles, life cycle application, and enterprise and organizational context.

Part Two
Tailor Measures [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains five chapters: tailor measures overview, identify and prioritize project issues, select and specify project measures, integrate into the technical and management processes, and a measurement tailoring example.

Part Three
Measurement Selection and Specification Tables [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains three chapters: how to use the tables, detailed measurement selection and specification tables, and adding issues, categories and measures.

Part Four
Apply Measures [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains four chapters: apply measures overview, collect and process data, analyze issues, and make recommendations.

Part Five
Indicator Examples [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains three chapters: indicator generation, single indicator examples, and integrated indicator examples.

Part Six
Implement Process [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains five chapters: implement process overview, obtain organizational support, define responsibilities, provide resources, and lessons learned.

Part Seven
Evaluate Measurement [PDF]

Department of Defense and US Army

This part of the guide contains five chapters: evaluate measurement overview, evaluate measures and indicators, evaluate the measurement process, update the experience base, and identify and implement improvements.

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Measurement Theory

Foundations of Software Measurement [PDF]
Horst Zuse

This slide presentation contains the following topics: an introduction, foundations of software measurement, Weyuker properties, validation of software measures and prediction models, and results.

Measurement Theory [PDF]
Mike Watts

This slide presentation outlines the following topics: why use measurement theory, background, what is measurement, and measurement scales.

Measurement Theory for Software Engineers [PDF]
Gary Ford

This paper discusses the following topics: definition of measures and metrics, measures and relationships, definition of measures and scales, classification of scales, and applying the concepts of measurement theory.

On the Application of Measurement Theory in Software Engineering [PDF]
Lionel Briand, Khaled El Emam and Sandro Morasca

Elements of measurement theory have recently been introduced into the software engineering discipline. It has been suggested that these elements should serve as the basis for developing, reasoning about, and applying measures. This paper argues that, inspite of the importance of measurement theory, and in the context of software engineering, many of these prescriptions and proscriptions are either premature or, if strictly applied, would represent a substantial hindrance to the progress of empirical research in software engineering. This argument is based partially on studies that have been conducted by behavioral scientists and by statisticians over the last five decades.

Software Measurement [PDF]
Sandro Morasca

This article provides an overview of the basic concepts and state of the art of software measurement. Software measurement is an emerging field of software engineering, since it may provide support for planning, controlling, and improving the software development process, as needed in any industrial development process. Over the years, a number of techniques and measures have been proposed and assessed via theoretical and empirical analyses. This shows the theoretical and practical interest of the software measurement field, which is constantly evolving to provide new, better techniques to support existing and more recent software engineering development methods.

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OO Metrics

A Critique of Cohesion Measures in the Object - Oriented Paradigm [PDF]
Bindu S. Gupta

This thesis examines measures of cohesion in the object-oriented paradigm. A list of properties that these cohesion measures must satisfy is presented. Some existing and new measures in the object-oriented paradigm claimed to be cohesion measures are compared with this list of properties. Inconsistencies between the measures and our understanding of cohesion are also discussed.

An OO Framework for Software Measurement and Evaluation (Extended Abstract) [PDF]
R.R. Dumke

This paper demonstrates a measurement and evaluation framework that uses the OO technology. Topics include: current problems in software measurement, the software measurement frameworks situation, the OO software metrics situation, an object-oriented measurement and evaluation framework, and an example of framework application as product evaluation of large scale C++ programs.

Applying and Interpreting Object Oriented Metrics [PDF]
Linda H. Rosenberg

In this paper, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discusses its approach to choosing metrics for a project by first identifying the attributes associated with object oriented development. Within this framework, nine metrics for object oriented are selected. These metrics include three traditional metrics adapted for an object oriented environment, and six "new" metrics to evaluate the principle object oriented structures and concepts. The metrics are first defined, then using a very simplistic object oriented example, the metrics are applied.

Applying Design - Metrics to Object - Oriented Frameworks [PDF]
Karin Erni and Claus Lewerentz

This paper presents a novel way of using object oriented design metrics as support for the incremental development of object oriented programs. Based on a quality model (factor-criteria-metrics model), so-called multi-metrics relate a number of simple structural measurements to design principles and rules. This paper details the use of the multi-metrics approach for the design and improvement of a framework for industry and used for graphical applications. Multimetrics tools were used with several versions of the framework.

Collecting and Analyzing the MOOD2 Metrics [PDF]
Fernando Brito e Abreu and Jean Sebastian Cuche

This position paper describes briefly an undergoing experiment of systematic metrics collection, whose results are expected to be presented at this workshop. The MOOD2 metrics, a comprehensive extension of the MOOD set, are being used for the first time in this experiment. A second generation of the MOODKIT tool, which has a WWW interface and relies upon the GOODLY design language, is being used for collecting the MOOD2 metrics.

Defining and Designing a Quality OO Metrics Suite [PDF]
Jon Avotins

A metrics suite design is presented that supports previously unsupported qualities of high quality metrics, and it is concluded that object-oriented design has a particular affinity to the development of a high quality metrics suite.

Developing Quality Measurement Model for Object - Oriented System [DOC]
Young-Jin Lee and Kai H. Chang

It is claimed that object-oriented programming has the advantages of extensive reuse of software objects and easier maintenance through data encapsulation. This research develops a quality measurement model for object-oriented systems in terms of reusability and maintainability. To this end, the authors propose a framework to construct a software quality measurement model.

Measurement of Object - Oriented Software Development Projects [PDF]
David N. Card, Khaled El Emam and Betsy Scalzo

This report summarizes the state of the practice for measurement of object-oriented (OO) software development projects and extends work previously performed by the Software Productivity Consortium and National Research Council of Canada. This report discusses the selection of appropriate measures for object-oriented development and the use of these measures in estimating and tracking software projects. The reports also discuses common issues with object- oriented projects, recommends management measures, and highlights some new issues that object-oriented technology introduces.

Object - Oriented Metrics: A Review of Theory and Practice [PDF]
K. El-Emam

This paper discusses the use of software product metrics for quality management. Topics include: the practical use of object-oriented metrics, object-oriented metrics, cognitive theory of object-oriented metrics, object-oriented thresholds, and empirical evidence.

Object Oriented Software Metrics Technology
Technical Report [PDF]

Tao Xie, Huang Huang, Xiangkui Chen, Hong Mei and Fuqing Yang

The scope of this project is to develop a methodology to evaluate software internal quality such as reusability or maintainability by using object oriented software's information such as design metrics measured from program, or to develop CASE tool prototype for this purpose. Topics include: object-oriented software quality metrics, object-oriented software quality metrics model, object-oriented software quality metrics tool, and application of software quality evaluation technology.

Principal Components of Orthogonal Object - Oriented Metrics
White Paper Analyzing Results of NASA Object-Oriented Data [PDF]

Victor Laing and Charles Coleman

This report presents the results of Task 323-08-14, Principal Components of Orthogonal Object-Oriented Metrics, performed by the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The task developed an approach to formulating a set of Orthogonal Object-Oriented metrics. The research is intended to find a way to produce cheaper and higher quality software. The Orthogonal Object-Oriented set of metrics will be selected from the core set of metrics that the SATC uses for code analysis.

Properties of Object - Oriented Software Measures [PDF]
Horst Zuse

In this paper foundations of the properties of object-oriented software measures are presented. The criteria for the properties of object-oriented software measures are characterized with several binary operations between objects, classes, methods, etc. Binary operations can be used as a tool to give numbers an interpretation above the ordinal scale level. The result of this investigation is that software measures for object-oriented mostly do not assume an extensive structure.

Software Engineering for Information Technology
Lecture 19: Object - Oriented Testing & Technical Metrics [PPT]

Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science

The topics of this PowerPoint presentation are: evaluating OOA and OOD models, unit, class and integration testing, OO design metrics, class-oriented metrics, operation-oriented metrics, testing metrics, and project metrics.

Towards An Object - Oriented Metric Modelling Process [PDF]
Jon Avotins

This paper reviews existing system lifecycle models and metric modeling approaches to elucidate inherent problems of existing metric modelling approaches. A list of criteria which a higher quality metric modeling approach should support is presented. Underlying concepts of recent object-oriented system lifecycle models and object-oriented software construction principles provide the appropriate technology to produce an object-oriented process for metric modeling.

Using OCL to Formalize Object Oriented Metrics Definitions [PDF]
Fernando Brito e Abreu

This paper proposes to standardize object-oriented metrics definitions using the Object Constraint Language (OCL), a part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard, and a meta-model of the modeling formalism. OCL allows specifying invariants, preconditions, postconditions and other types of constraints. To illustrate this approach, this paper describes the MOOD2 metrics in OCL, based upon the meta-model of the object design modeling formalism - the GOODLY language. The outcome is an elegant, precise and straightforward way to define metrics that may help to overcome several current problems.

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An Effort - Length - Complexity Metrics Model for Software [PDF]
A. Törn, T. Andersson and K. Enholm

An Effort-length-complexity metrics model for software (Elc) based on measurement theory is introduced. The model is defined by e(p) = l(p)c(p), where p is any piece of software, e(p) the effort in developing it, l(p) its length, and c(p) its structural complexity. Rules for computing Elc for the basic structured constructs are given. These make Elc sensitive to sequencing, nesting and modularization. A Scheme function is supplied for computing e, l and c for any program or collection of programs given in form of flowgraphs.

Measuring Functional Cohesion [PDF]
James M. Bieman and Linda M. Ott

This paper examines the functional cohesion of procedures using a data slice abstraction. The analysis identifies the data tokens that lie on more than one slice as the "glue" that binds separate components together. Cohesion is measured in terms of the relative number of glue tokens, tokens that lie on more than one data slice, and super-glue tokens, tokens that lie on all data slices in a procedure, and the adhesiveness of the tokens. The intuition and measurement scale factors are demonstrated through a set of abstract transformations.

Measuring Systems Interoperability [PDF]
Mark Kasunic

This slide presentation outlines the following topics: introduction to the problem, SEI's research goals, typical questions, some definitions, approaches to measuring interoperability (scorecard approach, levels of IS interoperability, management performance issues), and next steps.

Metrics for Software Adaptability [PDF]
Nary Subramanian and Lawrence Chung

This paper discusses the author's initial work in developing metrics for adaptability. In this paper they have developed several metrics for software adaptability. The advantage is that the metrics that they have developed are applicable at the architectural level. Since architecture development is the first stage of the design process, the extent to which the architecture is adaptable will determine the adaptability of the final software. Hence the metrics in this paper will help determine the extent to which the final software will be adaptable as well.

Mining Software Engineering Data: A Survey
A DACS State-of-the-Art Report [PDF]

Manoel Mendonca and Nancy L. Sunderhaft

This report discusses the state-of-the-art, as well as recent advances in the use of data mining techniques as applied to software process and product information. This report includes: a discussion on data mining techniques and on how they can be used to analyze software engineering data, a bibliography on data mining with special emphasis on data mining of software engineering information, a survey of the data mining tools that are available to software engineering practitioners, and a listing of Web resources for data mining information.

Structural Coverage Metrics [PDF]
IPL Information Processing Ltd.

This paper discusses structural test coverage metrics. This paper determines if the metrics could be used for real software developments.

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Test Metrics

An Evaluation of Software Testing Metrics for NASA's Mission Control Center [PDF]
Geroge E. Stark, Robert C. Durst and Tammy M. Pelnik

Software metrics are used to evaluate the software development process and the quality of the resulting product. Five metrics were used during the testing phase of the Shuttle Mission Control Center (MCC) Upgrade (MCCU) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Johnson Space Center. All but one metric provided useful information. Based on the authors experience they recommend using metrics during the test phase of software development and propose additional candidate metrics for further study.

Efficiency and Effectiveness Measures To Help Guide the Business of Software Testing [PDF]
Jon T. Huber

This paper discusses the "Process Metrics" team from Hewlett Packard which was an effort to identify ways to improve current software testing processes, infrastructure and measurement. The focus of the team was to identify and define efficiency and effectiveness metrics for the Boise LaserJet Test Lab. The metrics and chosen and the process to chose the metrics are also discussed.

In-Process Metrics for Software Testing [PDF]
S.H. Kan, J. Parrish and D. Manlove

This paper discusses several inprocess metrics which play a big part in software testing. These metrics usefulness is proven with ample implementation experiences at the IBM Rochester AS/400® software development laboratory. The purpose, data, interpretation, use and an example are described for each metric.

Metrics to Evaluate Vendor - Developed Software Based on Test Case Execution Results [PDF]
K. Bassin, S. Biyari and P. Santhanam

New metrics were derived for vendor-delivered code to measure the degree of risk associated with a variety of test case failures such as functionality not enabled, bad fixes, and defects not fixed during successive iterations. The relationship of these metrics to the actual cause was validated through explicit communications with the vendor and the subsequent actions to improve the quality and completeness of the delivered code. This paper describes how these metrics can be derived from the execution data and used in a software project execution environment.

Software Engineering - Methods Part I
Measurement and Testing [PPT]

Juan Bicarregui

This PowerPoint presentation covers the following topics: measurement (introduction, measurement, measuring software), unit testing (control flowgraph based testing, data flow based testing, modularity measures), finding test cases (symbolic execution, condition/decisions, adaptive testing), integration and system testing (integration testing, system and/or acceptance testing, partition v. random testing).

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Web Metrics

Towards Automated Web Metrics [PDF]
Luis Olsina, Guillermo Lafuente, Julia González and Oscar Pastor

This slide presentation's topics include: an introduction, automating Web metrics, catalogue of metrics, Website MA: architectural details, and conclusions and future works.

Web Metrics and Evaluation Current State of Implementation Among the CENDI Agencies Phase 1 [PDF]
Gail Hodge

This report focuses on three aspects of Web metrics - usage, evaluation, and performance. Usage metrics measure various aspects of the frequency and types of uses of agency Web sites. Evaluation metrics focus on the customer utility, usability, and satisfaction. Performance metrics measure the speed and efficiency of providing the information, whether displaying a page, downloading a file, or performing a transaction. In each case, the information collected in this study documents both the current activities in these areas and future plans.

Web Metrics - Estimating Design and Authoring Effort [PDF] *FEE*
Emilia Mendes, Nile Mosley and Steve Counsell

Prediction is necessary for authoring, designing, testing and Web development as a whole. This article discusses effort prediction for design and authoring processes.

Web Metrics Support [PDF]
Michael B. Spring

This slide presentation covers Web metrics software including: www.accrue.com, www.ipro.com, www.netgenesis.com, www.webtrendslive.com, and www.broadbase.com.

Web Site Metrics [PDF]
Will Weidman

This article was written about how difficult it is to obtain Web ROI. Topics include: what you don't know can't help you, your Web site data (where is the data, how to get the data, how to interpret the data), and the Web metrics plan (classification of Web site visitors, definition of customer lifecycle stages, development of metrics for each lifecycle stage, identification of measurements for each metric, plan execution).

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