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Reference Library
Software and Software Engineering

This page provides access to a variety of downloadable papers that address product issues. The following topics are considered:

Future of Software
General Discussion Software Evolution

Future of Software

Future - Proofing Software Solutions [PDF]

This paper is an interview with Larry Barker, president, software systems business unit, ADC Telecommunications, Inc., Thornhill, Ontario, Canada. Larry Barker explains products and services offered by the software systems unit of ADC, what it takes to stay on top of technology, and ADC's growth and future.

The Future of Software Engineering: V [PDF]
Watts S. Humphrey

This Watts New column focuses on the overall trends in our industry and what we will likely see in the future. In particular, the forces at work on software-intensive businesses and how businesses are likely to change in response to these forces.

The Future of Software: Defining the Research Agenda [PDF]
Pearl Brereton, David Budgen, Keith Bennett, Malcolm Munro, Paul Layzell, Linda Macaulay, David Griffiths and Charles Stannett

This report looks into the future of software in attempt to encourage and stimulate wider discussion about the long-term software research agenda. The report addresses future software scenarios which addresses the issues, how software and society will interact, how software will be used, how software will behave, and how software will be developed.

The Future of Software Integration: Self-Integrating Systems [DOC]
Steven R. Ray

This paper outlines a visionary research program for systems integration that will improve the reliability and robustness of complex "systems of systems." This program, self-integrating systems, will significantly advance the science underlying computer communication and the engineering of software for network-centric systems.

The Future of Software: Visualization + Computation Tools [PDF]
Ed H. Chi

This paper discusses the movement in recent years to help the management of software complexity. As software complexity continues to grow, visualization tools will be important for information to be quickly processed. Visualization tools along with sophisticated analysis computation can significantly help the usability of software as well as reduce the complexity of software development.

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General Discussion

Software Industry

Blueprint for the Ideal Requirements Engineer [PDF] *FEE*
Mark Christensen and Carl K. Chang

This paper discusses the skills, process, communication and technology that successful requirements engineers should possess.

The Changing Face of Freeware [PDF] *FEE*
John Edwards

This paper discusses how freeware is growing in popularity. Many firms are cashing in by releasing commercial versions of freeware or supporting free software within their retail products. Open-source-software proponents are concerned that the involvement of private firms will eventually take the free out of freeware and the source code out of open-source software.

India's Software Industry [PDF] *FEE*
Deependra Moitra

This paper introduces India as a land of contrast and discusses India's competitive advantage. The people of India, quality, India's software competence and India's software cities are also presented.

The Russian Software Industry [PDF]
Andrey A. Terekhov

This paper begins with a history of programming in Russia and discusses the abundance of well educated technical specialists Russia has. An overview of Russian software companies, problems and perspectives and government support are also presented.

Service-Based Software: The Future for Flexible Software [PDF] *FEE*
Keith Bennet, Paul Layzell, David Budgen, Pearl Brereton, Linda Macaulay and Malcom Munro

This paper presents a collaborative research method which, over a period of three years has given rise to a radical and innovative vision for future software. Five hypotheses' were formulated which were then used to frame key questions, the answers to which have led to a vision of service-based software. To realize a vision of highly flexible service-based software, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach to software engineering is essential, bringing together disciplines such as law, business and economics with software engineering.

The Start of the Software Products Industry [PDF] *FEE*
Burton Grad and Luanne Johnson

This article was written by members of the Software History Center as guest editors of an Annals special issue dealing with the software products industry's early days. This article is an introduction to the special issue and mentions several articles appearing in the issue.

A US Government - Regulated Software Industry [PDF] *FEE*
Jeffrey Voas

This paper discusses how government control of the software industry may occur. The author discusses how the US government already regulates software quality in certain industries and argues why the US government will, at some point, decide to regulate non-safety-critical information systems.

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Software Evolution

An Approach to a Theory of Software Evolution [PDF]
M.M. Lehman and J.F. Ramil

This paper outlines plans for the proposed development of a theory of software evolution. Apart from its intrinsic value, such a theory will advance understanding of the attributes of this phenomenon, its drivers and its practical impact on the software process and its products. If achieved, such a theory will provide means to identify and justify best practice in a world increasingly dependent on computers, where continuous software process improvement is of major, universal concern.

Approach to a Theory of Software Process and Software Evolution
-Position Paper- [PDF]

M.M. Lehman

This position paper is a short introduction to the FEAST project and the laws of software evolution.

Dimensions of Software Evolution [PDF]
Dewayne E. Perry

This paper discusses fundamental dimensions of well-engineered software systems (the domains, experience, and process) and how they themselves evolve and affect the evolution of systems for which they are the context. Each dimension is discussed, examples are provided to illustrate its various aspects, and a summary on how evolution in that dimension affects system evolution are presented.

EPiCS: Evolution Phenomenology in Component - Intensive Software [PDF]
M.M. Lehman and J.F. Ramil

This paper outlines the initial plans for an empirical investigation into t he evolution of component-intensive software systems. This paper addresses whether software evolution studies (including the FEAST projects) of the last 30 years are relevant to component-intensive software. The authors goal is to "contribute towards disciplined planning and management of long-term evolution of component-intensive software".

Evolution as a Noun and Evolution as a Verb [PDF]
M.M. Lehman, J.F. Ramil and G. Kahen

The paper starts by distinguishing between two types of software evolution studies. The first addresses evolution as a noun and focuses on it as a phenomenon. The second addresses the topic as a verb and focuses on methods and tools intended to facilitate software evolution and the tasks that implement it. Both views are necessary to achieve increased insight and a degree of mastery of the evolution phenomenon and to develop improved tools and technology.

Evolution in Open Source Software
A Case Study [PPT]

Michael W. Godfrey and Qiang Tu

This is a PowerPoint presentation on a paper of the same name: Evolution in Open Source Software: A Case Study [PDF]. The presentation focuses on what is software evolution, previous research on software evolution, and introduces a case study on the Linux OS kernel. The presentation concludes with observations, hypotheses and future research.

How Does your Software Grow?
Evolution and Architectural Change in Open Source Software [PDF]

Michael W. Godfrey

This position paper presents a short summary of two recent projects, the first a case study on the evolution and growth in open source software. The second project involves developing a tool called Beagle to aid software maintainers in understanding how large systems have changed over time. Beagle aims to provide help in modeling long term evolution of systems that have undergone architectural and structural change.

The Influence of Global Factors on Software System Evolution [PDF]
M.M. Lehman, J.F. Ramil and P.D. Wernick

This paper focuses on the FEAST/1 project which investigates a hypothesis that the software process is a multi level feedback system. Results obtained to date, supported by theoretical reasoning, support the view that software process improvement must focus on the global process (in addition to technical aspects of the process, organisation, management, marketing, user support and other factors must also be considered).This paper discusses the conceptual framework within which this question is raised, presents preliminary evidence to support tentative conclusions and indicates how the issue might be further investigated.

Laws of Software Evolution Revisited [PDF]
M.M. Lehman

This paper discusses the eight Laws of Software Evolution and how the FEAST project is expected to increase understanding of the laws and explore their finer detail. The paper begins with a section on the historical background of the laws and then discussed each of the laws. The feast project is also discussed as well as preliminary results of the project.

Metrics - Based Program Evolution Management [PDF]
M.M. Lehman and J.F. Ramil

This paper is a description of the FEAST/1 project and how it is providing an example of a metrics study of long term software evolution.

Metrics and Laws of Software Evolution - The Nineties View [PDF]
M.M. Lehman, D.E. Perry, J.F. Ramil, P.D. Wernick and W.M. Turski

This paper presents preliminary conclusions of the FEAST/1 project based on a study of a financial transaction system, the Logica FW system, are outlined and compared with those reached during the earlier OS/360 study. The new analysis supports, or better does not contradict, the laws of software evolution, suggesting that the 1970s approach to metric analysis of software evolution is still relevant today.

Rules and Tools for Software Evolution Planning and Management [PDF]
M.M. Lehman

The laws of software evolution were not widely accepted as relevant to software engineering practice but over the years they have gradually become recognized as providing useful inputs to understanding of the software process. Based on this and on the results of the recent FEAST/1 and current FEAST/2 research projects, this paper develops and presents over fifty rules for application in software system process planning, management and implementation, suggesting tools to be developed to support the application.

Thoughts on the Role of Formalisms in Studying Software Evolution [PDF]
Meir M. Lehman, Juan F. Ramil and Goel Kahen

This paper presents a system dynamics model of a long-term software evolution process as an example of process behavioural formalism. The model provides a context and framework where three software management tasks can be handled, resource allocation, release planning, and process performance monitoring. This model is part of and demonstrates the methods for software process modelling being developed.

Towards a Theory of Software Evolution
- And its Practical Impact [PDF]

M.M. Lehman and J.F. Ramil

This paper discusses why there is a need to develop an axiomatic theory of software evolution. It also discusses its practical impact, underlying strategies and outlines a strategy for the development of the theory.

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